Our Psychology Has Many Different Parts
Years ago when I started exploring my psyche through expressive art, I was astounded to discover all of the different parts of self that I had inside of me. As various aspects spilled out through my spontaneous collages, writings, drawings and paintings, I saw that not only did I have parts of different ages and temperaments inside, but also I had male and female aspects of self that were all struggling for expression.
Many parts that I had so expertly tucked away out of sight in the aim of living a highly functioning life, were often the younger, more hidden and hurting parts. There were many parts that I had exiled away because they felt unacceptable need, sorrow, loss, shame, fear, hurt, and anger.
Managing Emotional Pain
Popular psychology does not readily acknowledge that we all have a host of different characters inside of our psyche. Perhaps people fear the notion of having many different parts inside of the mind because of the stigma of Multiple Personality Disorder, or as it is now called, Dissociative Identity Disorder.
The reason, in my experience, that we have many personality parts is because we each create ingenious psychological mechanisms to hold and protect against feeling unprocessed emotional pain. It is possible to directly process emotional pain, so that there is no need for "parts work" but most of us can only process the emotional pain of human experience gradually. Working with personality parts is a gentle and creative way to slowly unravel emotional and psychological pain.
The good news is that do not have to dissociate away from the multiplicity of our human nature to appear "sane." Understanding all of the different parts of ourselves can be creative and even fun. We each have found profoundly creative ways to manage the pain of our life. All of us of us have various personality selves that have different goal and strategies to deal with emotional pain, and that play different and essential roles within our mind.
We also have access to the Authentic Self that we were born with that can witness the multiplicity of our emotional pain defense system with great care, creativity, and curiosity. Our Authentic Self is the dynamic and eternal soul force that not only can witness the emotionality of our personality parts, but can also lead them, re-parent them, and love them enough to heal, integrate, and encourage the gifts and strengths that they were meant to bring to our life.
Understanding that we have many selves inside can free us to creatively explore and balance ourselves. Our multiplicity, once harmonized and accepted, makes us into one whole integrated personality that can function with aliveness, integrity, and love. All of our parts are a valuable part of our inner ecosystem and they all want to play constructive inner roles. Problems arise when our inner aspects are forced into extreme roles, and influenced by trauma/abuse, shaming, repression, rejection, disapproval, or challenges in our outer family system. Current stress can activate our inner parts in extreme ways as well.
Most of us silently struggle with our repressed "inner demons". We might secretly fear that we are crazy when the various repressed parts of ourselves become activated. Sometimes our forbidden needs, feelings and desires leak out and we are surprised at our behaviour. It is common to hear people say after they do or say something extreme, "I just wasn't myself."
Most of us live highly controlled lives with only occasional emotional lapses into the intensity of our emotional pain. As we navigate through our lives, we develop very honed and controlled managerial parts of self that keep us functioning, working, paying the bills, and navigating our family dynamics. When we do something "crazy" or become flooded emotionally, our managerial parts of self become overwhelmed and lose control. To stuff away the emotional pain we are afraid to feel we might take actions that are "not like ourselves."
Because we repress what we cannot accept about ourselves, the hidden and rejected parts of our personality tend to distort themselves into what we could call our "inner demons". Any feeling, need, urge or behaviour trait that was disallowed in the past becomes exiled from our awareness, yet always threatens to erupt. "Inner Family Systems" author, originator and therapist Richard Schwartz best explains how our entire psychology organizes around keeping unacceptable needs and feelings hidden.
The theories encapsulated below are based on my creative application of the excellent work of psychologist Richard Schwartz and how I apply it to expressive art therapy:
"We have many personalities that grew at out of pain and broken bonding, but there is a difference between these and clinically diagnosed multiple personalities. All of our personalities compete, have different goals, are conflicted, and subtly stop us from receiving. The bigger the trauma, the larger the fractures we have inside, and the more independently these selves will operate." - Chuck Spezzano
Multiplicity is the inherent nature of the human mind. We all have an indeterminate number of sub-personalities, each having their own age, desires, temperaments, desires, goals, and talents. These sub-personalities form our inner family system. Each part of ourselves - when accepted, listened and tended to - has a powerful and particular strength to bring to our daily functioning in the world. When you create a life that allows safety of self-expression, you can begin to creatively map out how you work on the inside. You can learn how to be inclusive of all of your parts, and discover the gifts and strengths inherent in the currently extreme and protective behaviors that currently create imbalance in your life.
The True Self is Larger than its Parts
In addition to the collection of parts that make up our psyches, each and every one of us has a solid and unchanging Authentic Self. This is the wholeness that we are born with and the wholeness that we will return to when we die. The Authentic Self has all of the potentiality to be a good leader of your internal system of psychological parts. If the parts of your personality can come to trust your Authentic Self - you can experience an integrated life of harmony, creativity, and profound self-compassion.
A beautiful and relieving truth is that the inner parts of our personality are not bad or dangerous. They have been protecting our authenticity in an astonishing way. Our inner personality parts organize themselves to protect our Authentic Self at all costs. They sacrifice themselves and their own safety to remove our essential core from the awareness of emotional hurt and painful secrets. They hold difficult emotions for us so that we can function. They help us disscociate from danger in the face of trauma. The tricky thing is our sub-personalities blend their extreme feelings and thoughts with our Authentic Self. Because they have taken over our psychology, we think our personality parts are who we really are.
It is quite profound how the parts of our psyche mobilize forces to protect the precious Authentic Self. As Richard Schwartz explains it - any human system will mobilize to protect its leadership - which is the the Core Authentic Self. "Imagine a tribe of inner people of various ages and degrees of vulnerability, led by a Core Self. In the face of danger, the tribe moves the Self to a place of safety and certain parts come forward to deal with the danger."
This level of protection is especially true of our "manager" parts of self. We all have very concise and controlled parts of ourselves that manage a major portion of our functional lives. Our job is to differentiate our authentic Self from our managerial, protective parts as well as our repressed and exiled "younger" emotional parts. Once the Authentic Self has separated away from the feelings and thoughts of our personality parts, the parts regain their trust of the Self and authentic self-leadership and inner harmony can be restored.
You can think of your Authentic Self as a mediator that seeks to depolarize the conflicts of your inner parts and helps to sort out all of the varying needs that you have inside. Our parts of self do not disappear when our Authentic Self takes up leadership. They simply become less extreme and they begin to reveal their unique gifts and purposes within their less extreme roles. Sometimes particular parts of ourselves can develop their gifts so profoundly they can even step into the leadership at times when given permission from our Authentic Self. They will also withdraw from leadership when the Self requests it.
When outer influences intrude, either from our current life, or from our family of origin, such as through derogatory attitudes, prejudices, unrealistic expectations, or when shocking or traumatic interactions happen, our inner parts can take over leadership from our Authentic Self. These inner parts can also take on historical family losses and burdens, and take in (introject) outer family system depressions, illnesses and emotional heaviness. As one part of self takes on an extremely protective role it unbalances the entire inner system and takes over the leadership responsibilities from the Authentic Self. When the parts of self become polarized, intense inner conflict and inner competition ensues within the psyche.
When the people that we love, primarily live, identify, and express from one extreme part of themselves, we will find ourselves adjusting our personalities unhealthily to balance with and interact with them. This throws us out of our center. When our outer interactions are unbalanced, we move out of our center of our Authentic Self to belong and harmonize with our group or family system. The same thing happens in our inner family system. When trauma occurs, when we are abandoned, rejected, shocked, scared, or abused physically, sexually or emotionally, our inner systems polarize into extremes.
The Three Group Ecology
Highly polarized inner systems are very rigid and defended. To try to change any part of ourselves without considering the inner system that it operates in - will activate resistance. It is helpful to be respectful towards the parts of ourselves that feel scared and defended as they are just trying to do their job to keep us safe. Most people are polarized in their internal systems. Here is how Shwartz describes the three groups:
Any part that was hurt, rejected, scared, or shamed as child will often go into hiding and be repressed. These highly charged emotional sub-personalities become the exiles of our inner family system. These exiles are often overwhelmed with feelings of rejection and unlovability. Like any exiles, these parts become desperate to express themselves. They long for opportunities to break free and share their stories and their pain. They desperately want to be loved, listened to, accepted, and cared for. Often exiles also carry most of the feelings for the inner family system, because the other more managerial parts of self often dump their unwanted feelings onto the exiles to get on with the process of functional living.
These hurt and rejected inner parts are very vulnerable and if they are not brought forward into the light of consciousness with care and maturity they can flood us with uncomfortable feelings and memories. They are also in danger of looking for love in unhealthy ways. They tend to want to look to redeem their inner pain in same kinds of unhealthy situations that hurt them in the first place. These hurt and exiled parts of self will seek love, acceptance, and protection from the very types of people that cannot give it to them. This sets up a hopeless and repeating pattern of both inner and outer rejection.
Many people mistakenly think that their manager sub-personalities are their Authentic Selves, as "managers" can often be quite highly functioning, and even inspiring at times. Managers however, live in constant fear and dread of the escape of the exiles. It is important to note that manager parts of self do not accept all parts of the self like the Authentic self does. Managers try to control life in such a way as to avoid any person or situation that might trigger the pain of the past. This control and repression can sometimes look very noble, spiritual, creative, and highly achieving. Highly functioning manager selves can fill our lives with edifying and creative activities that in the end feel empty, because they are done from avoidance of and compensation for past pain instead of self-acceptance.
Managers can be highly functioning and efficient in the world. They can accomplish great things - but in an unbalanced way - that is out of touch with the Authentic Self. Managers in contrast to the True Self are a forced and extreme role that polarizes away from inner pain. Managers must expend enormous amounts of energy to keep the repressed need, hurt, fear, and painful memories and sensations buried. From this managerial place we strive, control, try to be a perfectionist, or to gain approval, or we live in a rigid denial of what is arising within.
Managers must sacrifice themselves for the internal system and they can rarely relax. The more competent these managerial parts become, the more the internal system relies on them and the more the Authentic Self is denied. Most often from a managerial part we can feel lonely, overwhelmed, and exhausted. Like the exiles, our managers need love, balance, nurturance, fun, acceptance, care and rest. These managers - only being a part of self - come to believe that everything depends on them. The more they accomplish the less they believe in - or are willing listen to the wisdom of the Core/Authentic Self.
When our managers become overwhelmed and exhausted with all their responsibilities, the exiles can become activated, and can threaten to take over our internal psychological system. When the exiles take over, we can be uncontrollably flooded with difficult feelings. The emergency firefighters will then swoop in to help us dissociate, or to douse the dreaded exiled feelings, with little regard for their consequences. The techniques that the firefighter uses, include extreme and numbing activities such as self-mutilation, binge eating, drug or alcohol abuse, excessive eating or sexual activity, or other extreme forms of dissociation. The aim of our firefighter parts of self is to engage in any dissociative, distracting, or self-serving activity that will take us out of our intense emotional pain.
This extreme mode of coping with emotional pain is the place that all unbalanced, addictive and obsessive behaviors come from. And while mangers are controlled and organized and highly rational, firefighters will use any means to numb our emotional pain. These extremely self-focused behaviors often leaves a wake of destruction in our psyche, relationships and body.
When we understand the inner workings of our psyche, we can see why going within, and unconditionally being present for challenging emotions is a necessary practice to incorporate into our life. Most people, even those who have not been severely hurt, organize around this three-group system. Most of us struggle against some form of self-rejection and repression, and work within these three groups.
Restoring Balance, Harmony, and Leadership
Our psychological system already has everything encoded within itself to heal. Even the most conflicted inner internal psychological system can heal itself - if the process of listening to all perspectives of our inner world is honored. When our Authentic Self takes its true seat of leadership we will enjoy the process of seeing and expressing the creative multiplicity of ourselves. It is a relief and a joy to creatively explore and sort out the map of our psyche and understand how we uniquely operate. Through inner self-acceptance, the gifts and strengths that we buried along with our pain are finally able to come to the forefront for expression in our daily life.
It is profoundly relieving to discover firsthand that all parts of ourselves want to harmonize and contribute to our best life. Every part of us has a valuable role to play and each part will eagerly leave their extreme roles given the love, self-acceptance, and inner nurturing that we can provide through our Core/Authentic Self.
It is most helpful however, to do this inner work when we are not living in a dangerous or triggering outer environment. Parts will have a hard time leaving their roles when they are continually be activated by other people. Often it is important to find a quiet time away from the stresses of life to explore the inner parts of our psyche.
Learning to unravel all of the different stories, imagery, and voices of my own and other people's inner landscapes is something I feel creatively passionate about. In my own creative work and in witnessing the expressive art of many other people, it has become clear to me that we all have many different aspects of our personality that have helped us through our life. Creative multiplicity can be a profoundly moving and fun process where we come to respect and appreciate all of the parts of ourselves that have kept us safe, helped us function, and brought us intact to this present moment.
Resources and Directives to Explore your Multiplicity: